##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

عبدالواحد هودیانی مهر مهدی دهمرده عیسی خمری محمد رضا اصغری پور چمن

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تغییرات عناصر غذایی خاک در کشت مخلوط چای ترش و ماش آزمایشی در مزرعه آموزشی و تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل در سال زراعی 93-1392، به‌صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. عامل اصلی 3 نوع خاک ورزی شامل بدون شخم، شخم کاهش یافته، شخم رایج (گاوآهن و دیسک) و عامل فرعی نسبت های کشت مخلوط شامل خالص چای ترش، خالص ماش،50 درصد چای ترش +50 درصد ماش، 75 درصد چای ترش+ 25 درصد ماش، 25 درصدچای ترش + 75 درصد ماش در نظر گرفته شد. صفات مورد بررسی در این تحقیق شامل (کربن آلی خاک، نیتروژن، منیزیم، کلسیم، پتاسیم، رطوبت حجمی، دمای خاک و نسبت برابری زمین) نشان داد که سیستم بدون خاک-ورزی و تیمارهای مخلوط رطوبت حجمی بیشتری نسبت به سیستم خاک ورزی مرسوم و کشت خالص چای ترش کسب نمودند. سیستم بدون خاک ورزی و افزایش نسبت ماش در کشت مخلوط سبب افزایش میزان رطوبت و کاهش دمای خاک گردید. در بین کشت‌های مخلوط تیمار 75 درصد ماش به‌علاوه 25 درصد چای ترش بالاترین میزان کربن (99/0 درصد) و نیتروژن (087/0 درصد) را نشان داد. بالاترین مقدار نیتروژن و کربن آلی خاک پس از برداشت از برهمکنش سیستم بدون خاک‌ورزی و کشت خالص ماش به‌ترتیب 15/0 و 75/1 درصد به‌دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که نسبت برابری زمین در همه تیمارهای مخلوط بزرگتر از یک بود که نشان‌دهنده برتری کشت های مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص آن‌ها بود. بیشترین عملکرد اقتصادی چای ترش و ماش در برهمکنش سیستم بدون خاک‌ورزی و کشت خالص هر کدام به مقدار 89/990 و 20/740 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌دست آمد. بیشترین نسبت برابری زمین از کشت مخلوط 75 درصدماش به‌علاوه 25 درصد چای ترش (36/1) به‌دست آمد. در مجموع نتایج این تحقیق اهمیت کشت مخلوط لگوم و گیاه دارویی را در استفاده بهینه از منابع محیطی، افزایش حاصلخیزی خاک و سودمندی بیشتر کشت مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص چای ترش و ماش تأیید نمود.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
1. Abraham, C. T., and Singh, S. P. 1992. Weed management in sorghum-legume intercropping system. Agricultural Science 103: 103-108.
2. Agegnnehu, G., Ghizaw, A., and Sinebo, W. 2006. Yield performance and land use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Etthiopian highlands. European Journal of Agronomy 25: 202-207.
3. Andersen, M.K., Hauggard-Nielsen, H., Ambus, P., and Jensen, E.S. 2005. Biomass production, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and inorganic N use in dual and tri-component annual intercrops. Plant and Soil 266: 273-287.
4. Bahrani, M.J., Raufat, M.H., and Ghadiri, H. 2007.Influence of wheat residue management on irrigated corn grain production in a reduced tillage system.
5. Beheshti, S.A., and Soltaniyan, B. 2012. Maintain internal and external competition in a row intercropping sorghum and beans. Journal of Agricultural Seed and Plant 28 (2): 1-17.
6. Bolie, F., Rubio, R., Rouanet, J.L., Morales, A., and Rojas, C. 2006. Effects of tillage systems on soil characteristics, glomalin and mycorrhizal propagules in achilean ultisol. Soil and Tillage Research 8: 253-261.
7. Caradus, J.R. 1990. The structure and function of white clover root system. Advance in Agronomy 43: 22-37.
8. Chowdhury, M.K., and Rosario, E.L. 1994. Comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium utilization efficiency in maize-mung bean intercropping. Agricultural Science 122: 193-199.
9. Dahmardeh, M. 2010. The effect of Eco-physiological aspects of intercropping of maize and cowpea on quantity and quality of forage maize K.S.C 704. Ph. D Thesis of Agronomy. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol. 196 P.
10. Ehlers, W. 1985. Observation earthworm channels and infiltration on tilled and untilled loess soil. Soil Sci. 119:242-249.
11. Eskanadri, H., and Ghanbari, A. 2011. Evaluation of competing and complementary components of intercropping of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) on the use of nutrients. Journal of Agricultural and sustainable production 21(2): 68-75.
12. Eslami Khalili, F., Allah Pirdashti, H., and Motaghiyan, A. 2011. Evaluate the performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in different concentrations and combinations of intercropping through competitive index. Journal of Ecology agriculture 3(1): 94-105.
13. Ghamri Vafa, N., Hamzehi, J., Ahmadivand, G., and Keshtekar, A.H. 2011. Effects of different planting patterns on pH, electrical conductivity, and soil organic matter. The first national conference on issues of modern agriculture, Islamic Azad University, pp: 1-5.
14. Ghanbari, A. 2000. Intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba) as a low-input forage. PhD thesis. Wye Collage University of London. P: 261.
15. Hashemi Dezfoli, A., Abdi, A., and Siyadat, A. 2000. The effect of mixing ratio and planting date on yield and quality of forage and grain intercropping of maize and sunflower in Ahvaz. Journal of crop 2(2): 1-16.
16. Hulugalle, N.R., and M. Gichuru. 1991. Effects of 5 years of no-tillage and mulch on soil properties and tuber yield of cassava on an acid Ultisol in Southeastern Nigeria. IITA Res 1: 13-16.
17. Inal, A., Gunes, A., Zhang, F., and Cakmak, I. 2008. Peanut/maize intercropping induced changes in rhizo sphere and nutrient concentrations in shoots. Journal of Plant Physiology and Biology 45: 350-356.
18. Irena, M., Andrzej, B., Zuzanna, S., and Tomasz, D. 2012. The effect of various long-term tillage systems on soil properties and spring barley yield. Turkish Journal of Agriculture 36: 217-226.
19. Jafari, A.A., Connolly, V., Frolich, A., and Walsh, E.K. 2003. A note on estimation of quality in perennial ryegrass by near infrared spectroscopy. Irish Journal Agriculture Food Research 42: 293-299.
20. Jin, H., Hongwena, Li., Rabi, G.A., Rasaily, B., Qingjiea, W., Guohuaa, C., Yanboa, S., Xiaodonga Q., and Lnijic, L. 2011. Soil properties and crop yields after 11 years of no tillage farming in wheat–maize cropping system in North China Plain. Soil and Tillage Research 113: 48-54.
21. Kjeldahl, J. 1883. New method for the determination of nitrogen in organic substances, Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie 22 (1): 366-383.
22. Koocheki, A.R., Nasiri Mohallati, M., Khoramdel, S., Anvarkhah, S., Sabet Temori, M., and Sanjani, S. 2010. Growth of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in both replacement and Additive intercropping series. Journal of Ecological Agriculture 2(1): 27-36.
23. Mosadeghi, M.R., Afioni, M., and Hemat, A. 2001. Effect of two tillage systems on same properties of physical soil in North Carolina America and compare it with the situation in Iran. Seventh Congress of Soil Science pp: 130-132.
24. Molindo, W.A. 2009. Estimations of NPK in Zero-Tillage Soils Post Soybean (Glycine max L.) Merr.) Croppings in Two Locations in Southwestern Nigeria. Agricultural Journal 4 (1): 10-13.
25. Najafinezhad, A., Javaheri, M.A., Gheibi, M., and Rostamia, M.A. 2007. Influence of Tillage Practices on the grain yield of Maize and some soil properties in Maize-wheat cropping system of Iran. Journal of Agriculture and Social Science 3(3): 1813-2235.
26. Njoka-Njiru, E.N., Njariu, M.G., Abdolrezak, S.A., and Mureithi, J.G. 2006. Effect of intercropping herbaceous legumes with Napier grass on dry matter yield and nutritive value of the feedstuffs in semi-arid region of Eastern Kenya. Agriculture Tropical ET Subtropical 39 (4): 225-262.
27. Nyborg, M., and Malhi, S. S. 1989. Effect of zero and conventional tillage on barley yield and nitrate content, moisture and temperature of soil in North-Central Alberta. Soil and Tillage Research 15:1-9.
28. Listrom, G.M., Terman, G.L., Dreier, A.F., and Olson, R. A. 2001. Residual nitrate nitrogen in fertilized deep loess-derived soils. Agronomy Journal 60: 477-482.
29. Osundare, B., and Gbadamosi, H.O. 2014. Evaluation of soil Fertility and Maize (Zea Mays L.) grin yield performance under conventional and no-tillage systems. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 3(7): 281-286.
30. Philipp, A. 2009. What is sustainable agriculture Empirical evidence of diverging views in Switzer land and newzeland? Ecological Economics 68: 1872-1882.
31. Unger, P. W. and Kaspar, T. C.. 1994. Soil compaction and root growth: A review. Agronomy Journal 86: 759-766.
32. Rahimzadeh, R., and Navid, H. 2011. Effect of tillage system on the properties of the of clay soil and wheat yield in rotation with peas in dry land conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science and sustainable production 31(1): 30-41.
33. Rejaie, M., and Dahmardeh, M. 2014. The Evaluation of Corn and Peanut Intercropping on Efficiency of Use the Environmental Resource and Soil Fertility. Journal of Agricultural Science 6 (4): 99-108.
34. Ramroudi, M., Majnoon Hosseni, N., Hossien zadeh, A., Mazaheri, D., and Hossieni, M. 2011. Effects of cover crops, tillage systems and Nitrogen fertilizer on soil characteristics and forage yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L). Journal of Agriculture 92: 1-23.
35. Rejaie, M. 2013. Evaluation of ecological and agronomic aspects of intercropping of maize (Zea may) and peanuts (Arahis hypoga) in additive and replacement series. Master Thesis Agro ecology, Faculty of agriculture, University of Zabol. P. 137.
36. Rowell, D.L. 1994. Soil Science: Methods and Application. Longman Scientific and Technical. 350p.
37. Sadri, S., Poryousef, M., and Solemani, A. 2014. Evaluation of essential oil yield and profitability indicators in intercropping Foeniculum vulgare Mill and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Agricultural crop management 16(4): 921-932.
38. Safari, A., Asodar, M., Ghaseminejad, M., and Ebdali Mashhadi, A. 2013. The effect of residue, various methods of tillage system and planting on soil characteristics and yield of wheat. Journal of Agricultural Knowledge sustainable production 23(2): 50-59.
39. SAS, Institute. 2001. SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 8.2. SAS Institute, Cary, NC
40. Spiegel, H., Dersch, G., Hosch, J., and Baumgarten, A. 2007.Tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nutrient availability in a long-term field experiment in Austria, Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Bodenbearbeitung auf organische Substanz und verfügbare Nährstoffe in Boden in einem Langzeitversuch in Österreich, 47-58.
41. Thobatsi, T. 2009. Growth and yield responses of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in an intercropping system. MS.c Thesis. University of Pretoria, 149 P.
42. Vandermeer, J.H. 1989. The Ecology of intercropping. Cambridge University Press/
43. Walkley, A., and Black, I. A. 1934. An Examination of Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method. Soil Science 37:29-37.
44. Willey, R.W. 1979. Intercropping: its importance and its needs pt. 2 agronomic relationships, Field Crop Abstract 32: 73-85.
45. Zhang, F.S., and Li, L. 2003. Using competitive and facilitative interactions in intercropping system enhance crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency. Plant Soil 248: 305-312.
ارجاع به مقاله
هودیانی مهرع., دهمردهم., خمریع., & اصغری پور چمنم. ر. (2016). اثر سیستم‌های خاک‌ورزی بر محتوی عناصر غذایی خاک، عملکرد و نسبت برابری زمین در کشت مخلوط چای ترش- ماش. پژوهشهای زراعی ایران, 15(2), 311-322. https://doi.org/10.22067/gsc.v15i2.48487
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی